Thursday, January 18, 2007

Diffusion of culture

Culture is a process of changing from one place to another. Culture may be diffuse by the process of adaptation, imitation, acculturation. Recently we celebrate our grate festival Dashain. No one knows how the culture is developed. There is some saying on emergence o f Dashain festival. One is god Ram had killed the Ravana and another saying is goddess Durga killed Mahishasur. So we celebrated the Dashain on worshipping the as power of god. On the other, archeologist explains their own story. They said that in the prehistoric period hunter and gatherer plays a big game. They killed big elephant and other big animals and celebrate in a group by eating and dancing. In the Neolithic period they start to domesticate plants and animals.
On such occasion they not only used meat dishes but also use plant dishes. They celebrate it like we celebrating today great festivals.

If we turn toward the culture of Nepal we found Nepal is rich is cultural diversity. Not only cultural diversity also in language, caste and ethnic group. In the past history all Nepal is full by those ethnic group. But with the changing time Brahmin are Chhetri are found as dominant group. These ethnic groups believe that Dashain is not their own festival. But it is clear that most of the God and Goddess are belong from the same group.

In the past history Dashain is celebrated only by Bahun and Chhetri and tihar is by Vaishya and other middle class people. Similarly there is another reason why people celebrate dashain in this season. At the moment all farmer are free after harvesting their crops, paddy. Their store room is full of food and they want to gather their relatives and celebrate as like a festival.

Now in the modern time, we found that the festival is celebrated by different caste and ethnic group. After the unification of Nepal, Dashain and Tihar is celebrate as like a national festival. But the celebrating of Dashain by various ethnic group and caste group is different.In this way culture is diffuse from one place to another.


Sindhupalchok is one of the richest districts in natural beauty and natural resources. It is the largest district in between the eight districts of Bagmati zone in the central development Region. Sindhu and Palchok are the two ridge the combination Sindhupalchok is named as district. It is lies in between the Dolakha & Ramechhap district of Janakpur Zone in the east. Nuwakot and Rasuwa district of Bagmati zone lies in the west. Tibet and Rasuwa lies in the north and Kathmandu, Kavrepalanchok & Ramechhap lies in the south of this district. It is situated between the 85 degree 27minute to 86 degree 6minute of eastern longitude and 27 degree 36 minute to 28 degree 13 minute of northern latitude in the world cardiogram. It is spread in lies on Bagmati zone of Nepal. It has 79 villages . The headquater of this district is Chautara which lies at the eastern part.
It is a tourist area. it is recognized by various important and famous places which have touristic region such as Tatopani, Panch Pokhari, Gaurati Bhimsen temple, Palchok Bhagawati temple etc. this district is mainly hilly district. There are many caves, sinks, ponds, religious temples in the districts which are most important as historical meaning and also these are protected as cultural heritage. The mountains, rivers, forests have made it most beautiful and peace.
Since Lichhaive era, Sindhupalchok district was administered by Kathmandu. After than also, this district was governed by Kathmandu district . In malla epoch, it laid in control of Kantipur (kathmandu) while Raj Shiva Singh won Dolkha. In Kuti and Khasa of this district, Malla Kings had made it their business center with Tibet and China. According to the inscription of Pratap Malla Khasa, Kuti and Kerung were in the territory of Nepal and these places were also governed by Nepal for many years. At the time of Bahadur Shah, Nepal lost these areas in war with China which concluded with Nepal-Bhote treaty. While founder of Modern Nepal Prithvi Narayan Shah started the compaign to consolidate Nepal, some changes had come in this district.
At that time, the land of Sindhupalchok district was included in Kantipur state under Thapas. In the campaign for amalgamation of Nepal in 1746 AD, the Gorkha Army troops in the leadership of Shivaram Bashnyat entered in Sangachok, but with the order of Jay Prakash Malla, the king of Kantipur state, Shivaram Thapa succeed to rent them from Sangachok. Jay Prakash Malla had made Shivaram the chief of Sangachok and also kicked out current chief Rana Bhim Thapa.
In 1746, Prithvi Narayan Shah called Parshuram thapa, brother of Rana Bhim in Nuwakot, secretly. And with the order of Prithvi Narayan Shah, Parshuram brought big Gorkha army troop in Naldhumgadi without bloodshade. At that time, they captured Bhrammadev Pokhari Gadhi and Naldhumgadhi and except these areas. The other part of this district was joined into Bhaktapur state in Nov. 1746 AD.
In 1754, Jay Prakash Malla got success to capture this district again under Kantipur. Since 1747 to 1753, the land of this district was joined into Bhaktapur state and governed the king of Bhakatapur Ranjit Malla. Later, when Prithvi Narayan Shah got victory in Kantipur, this district was also added into Gorkha state with Kantipur at the end of 1754.Than, Prithvi Narayan Shah made Kathmandu the capital of Nepal. After consolidation of Nepal, this district was governed by the Shah and Ranas.
In 1832 AD, Pratap Singh Shah, the current king of Nepal, made treaty to begin business with Tibet. Thus, the business men started to go to Tibet for business proposals through this district. At the time of Bahadur Shah, the war with Bhote took place in 1789 AD in which Nepalese Army troops had reached 257 mile behind Kuti towards Bhote but Bhote talked about treaty due to that the troops returned. Later, Bhote violated the treaty proposal and again the war held with the help of China, the Bhote army troops arrived to Bhagawati towards Nepal which brought risk for Nuwakot district. Then, the war ended with the Nepal-Bhote treaty in which Nepal lost its lands kuti and kerung in 1792.
Since 1846 to 1950 AD, this district was governed by the Ranas. After establishment of multiparty democracy in 1951, the sings of developments were seen in this district. Till 1965 AD, this district was administered by the Administration Office of Kavre. Later, the Headquarter of the district was made in Chautara and the District Administration Office, District Police Office, were established According to the population census of 1971, there were 75 VDCs in this district but in 1981, the number of VDC, was decreased to 54. But today there are 79 VDCs in this district.


Vadasi village is in western part of Butwal. Originally, Tharu are lived there. But there is mix settlement. In their own caste they have hierarchy as like Brahmin caste system. In tharu, there is different caste such as Damoriya, Kathariya(high caste),Musiyar (untouchable). They have own culture and religious practices which are different than other.

There life de passage of modern tharu and ancient tharu is different. For example, variation in living style, economic condition, employment opportunity, education. According to Ramsaran Chaudhari they used to work in landlord's farm. Those tharu who have own land are also worked as a servant and marginalized their own land. At the time of festival they take loan from the landlord. But they are unable to pay back the loan and they give their own land to return their loan. In this way they became relatively poor. According to him they go for work in the early morning at 4 o'clock till night 8-10 o'clock. Now this routine is not followed. They can go for work at day time and left earlier than before.

Their main festival is holi, khichadi, panchami, aitabar. They also celebrate Dashain and Tihar but they do not take tika and Jamara in dashain, and donot put bhai tika also. They celebrate it by eating meat and drinking alcohol.

When little child born then women get pure after getting bath in 6th day. They put their children name according to the day of child born. For example, if the child is born in sunday (aitabar) then his/her name is aitey. If the child is born in farm then his/her name is kheytada / kheytad. But, now they asked to Priest for their children name. Sometime, they give the good name for their child.

Before 18 years ago, they have not right to see any boy and girl before marriage. They get married in early childhood. Their father selected the bride and groom. Father worked as a broker. But this system is changed now; both groom and bride are given the right for the selection. Then suitable time is look for married. They celebrate marriage ceremony before one week. Relatives are called before one week and after the finishing marriage their relatives.

They have no dowry system. Bride father gave according to his wishes. Next day of marriage ceremony groom go for the contract. How long she can stay in her maternal home. When they fixed time and date then her father took his daughter.

They used to wear bhagai and kattu. People of tharu community do not used to wear chappal previously.

At the time of death the funeral body is burn near by river and jungle. Only one
member of the family is selected for the death ritual.